Radiant floor heating systems
Film Heating System
A relatively young type of electric radiant floor heating is the film heating system, which utilizes a special film as the heating element. Often, this film is also referred to as infrared, which is not entirely accurate, as all warmth is a result of infrared radiation. Currently, South Korea is the primary producer of heating film, supplying it to the countries of the CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States). Some film models can be used beneath tile adhesive for laying ceramic tiles.
There are two types of film flooring: carbon (often mistakenly referred to as graphite) and bimetallic.
Carbon: This film consists of a resistive element placed between two layers of polyester film (carbon heating elements connected in parallel). The heating film can be used for heating various types of spaces as the main or additional heating source, as well as for heating open areas. Thermal film can be placed on the floor, walls, and ceiling of a room. Carbon films are divided into two types:
Film floors for laminate, linoleum, and carpet.
Perforated film floors for tiles, ceramic granite, and screed.
The film allows for a quick and easy installation of a heated floor. After installation, it can be disassembled and laid in another room if necessary.
Bimetallic: There is a bimetallic film, which is a thin polyurethane film containing a patented combination of two layers: the lower layer is an alloy of aluminum with additives, while the upper layer is an alloy of copper with additives. The film is shaped like a continuous roll, divided into square sections measuring 0.585×0.545, which can be cut into the required sections.
The section structure includes a disconnected current-conducting bus along the edges, connected by a zigzag conductor (1 mm thick with a 1 mm pitch). This film is designed for installation under floor decorative coverings such as laminate, linoleum, and carpet but is not suitable for tiles. The recommended maximum temperature on the thermostat is +27°C, due to the characteristics of decorative coverings. (A vivid example is wood behavior when heated. The maximum temperature at which wood feels comfortable is +28°C. Exceeding this temperature will cause wood, e.g., parquet, to dry out over time.) Because there is no grounding, connection via a residual current device (RCD) or a differential circuit breaker is required (the film floor must be covered with a separate grounding layer, which is purchased separately). Film floors should not be installed in wet areas, as per the GOST requirement for a device protection class of at least IP21.